274 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION famous Essay concerning Human Understanding. Among his lesser works, written mainly in advocacy of social and intellectual freedom, was Some Thoughts concerning Education (1693). As the title indicates, it was a somewhat casual production. In its first form it consisted of a series of letters to a Somerset friend, giving advice for his guidance in the training of his son, and was not intended for publication. But though it retained something of the character of informal letters even when published, it had behind it—to give it unity—all the experience Locke had gained in supervising the tuition, first of the son, and afterwards of the grandson, of his patron, and all the practical insight of a broad philosophical mind. Complementary to the Thoughts is an essay posthumously published, Of the Conduct of the Understanding, intended by him as a practical appendix to the great Essay to show how a young man could best cultivate his mind. In expounding his views on education in the Thoughtsy Locke deliberately sets himself in opposition to most of the practices of the grammar schools. His objection is really to schools of any kind. He admits that there is something to be gained by the emulation of schoolfellows, but the disadvantages of schools he regards as far outstripping their advantages. His first objection to them is one that smacks of Puritanic prejudice, " Till you can find a school, wherein it is possible for the master to look after the manners of his scholars, and can show as great effects of his care of forming their minds to virtue as of forming their tongues to the learned languages, you must confess that you have a strange value for words when, preferring the languages of the ancient Greeks and Romans to that which made them such brave men, you think it worth while hazarding your son's innocence and virtue for a little Greek and Latin."* " The point made here is that the schools sacrifice virtue to learning, but it is obvious that behind this criticism is an equally strong objection to the ordinary studies of the schools. This in point of fact he proceeds to develop later. " A great part of the learning now in fashion in the schools of Europe, and that goes ordinarily into the round of education, a gentleman may in good measure be unfurnished with, without any great disparagement to himself, or prejudice to his affairs."t It would be far better, he thinks, if the boy's father made sure that he had a right knowledge of men. " He * § 70. t § 94.